A Refined Hydrogeologic Framework Model for Gaines, Terry, and Yoakum Counties, Texas
Vol. 10 No. 1 (2019). Cover Photo: Painted bunting at Madla Park, Grey Forest, Texas. ©2018 Grace Hardy.
PDF

Keywords

Ogallala
Edwards-Trinity
Fredericksburg
hydrogeologic
Gaines
Terry
Yoakum

How to Cite

Thomas, J. V., Teeple, A. P., Payne, J. D., & Ikard, S. J. (2019). A Refined Hydrogeologic Framework Model for Gaines, Terry, and Yoakum Counties, Texas. Texas Water Journal, 10(1), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.21423/twj.v10i1.7082

Abstract

Declining groundwater levels in Gaines, Yoakum, and Terry counties in the Southern High Plains have raised concerns about the amount of available groundwater and the potential for water-quality changes resulting from dewatering and increased vertical groundwater movement between adjacent water-bearing hydrogeologic units. More than 11,500 well records containing pertinent data were compiled, including data delineating the vertical extents of wells penetrating one or more of the units. Additional geophysical data were collected to improve the spatial coverage of available data across the study area and to reduce uncertainty regarding hydrogeologic unit extents. Across the study area, the average altitude of the base of the Ogallala Aquifer was approximately 1.7 feet lower compared to previous assessments of the altitude of the base of the aquifer, resulting in an increase in the saturated thickness by the same amount. Some of the largest increases in the altitude of the base of the Ogallala Aquifer were observed in central and east-central Gaines County where the units that compose the Edwards-Trinity Aquifer thin at approximately 136 feet and the largest decreases in altitudes are in Yoakum County at around 185 feet. Both the thickest and thinnest part of the Ogallala Aquifer is in Gaines County at just over 300 feet in west Gaines County and around 20 feet in northeast Gaines County.

 

Citation: Thomas JV, Teeple AP, Payne JD, Ikard SJ. 2019. A refined hydrogeologic framework model for Gaines, Terry, and Yoakum counties, Texas. Texas Water Journal. 10(1):1-21. Available from: https://doi.org/10.21423/twj.v10i1.7082.

https://doi.org/10.21423/twj.v10i1.7082
PDF

References

[ASTM] American Society of Testing and Materials. 1999. Standard guide for selecting surface geophysical methods. West Conshohocken (Pennsylvania): American Society of Testing and Materials International. 11p. D 6429–99.

[ASTM] American Society of Testing and Materials. 2004. Standard guide for conducting borehole logging— Mechanical caliper. West Conshohocken (Pennsylvania): American Society of Testing and Materials International. 6 p. D 6167–97.

[ASTM] American Society of Testing and Materials. 2007. Standard guide for conducting borehole geophysical log¬ging—Electromagnetic induction. West Conshohocken (Pennsylvania): American Society of Testing and Materials International. 8 p. D 6726–01.

[ASTM] American Society of Testing and Materials. 2010. Standard guide for planning and conducting borehole geophysical logging. West Conshohocken (Pennsylvania): American Society of Testing and Materials International. 9 p. D 5753–05.

Ashworth JB, Hopkins J. 1995. Aquifers of Texas. Austin (Tex¬as): Texas Water Development Board. 69 p. Report 345.

Bell AE, Morrison S. 1979. Analytical study of the Ogallala aquifer in Gaines County, Texas. Austin (Texas): Texas Department of Water Resources. 63 p. Report 227.

Bradley RG, Kalaswad S. 2003. The groundwater resources of the Dockum aquifer in Texas. Austin (Texas): Texas Water Development Board. 81 p. Report 359.

[CWLS] Canadian Well Logging Society. 2018. LAS informa¬tion—Log ASCII Standard (LAS) software. [cited 2018 January 5]. Available from: http://www.cwls.org/las_info.php.

[CGC] Century Geophysical Corporation. 2018. Logging tools. [cited 2018 January 5]. Available from: at https:// www.century-geo.com/multi-parameter-probes.

Cronin JG. 1969. Groundwater in the Ogallala Formation in the Southern High Plains of Texas and New Mexico. U.S. Geological Survey Hydrogeologic Investigations Atlas HA-330. [cited 2018 September 27]. Available from: https://pubs.usgs.gov/ha/330/report.pdf.

Deeds NE, Harding JJ, Jones TL, Singh A, Hamlin S, Reedy RC. 2015. Final conceptual model report for the High Plains Aquifer System Groundwater Availability Model. Austin (Texas): Texas Water Development Board. 600 p. [cited 2018 June 26]. Available from: https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth838867/.

Dugan JT, McGrath TS, Zelt RB. 1994. Water-level changes in the High Plains aquifer—Predevelopment to 1992. Lin¬coln (Nebraska): U.S. Geological Survey. 56 p. Water-Re¬sources Investigations Report 94–4027.

Fallin JA. 1989. Hydrogeology of lower Cretaceous strata under the Southern High Plains of Texas and New Mex¬ico. Austin (Texas): Texas Water Development Board. 39 p. Report 314.

Fleming AH, Rupp RF. 2018. Hydrogeologic framework. Bloomington (Indiana): Indiana University; Indiana Geological and Water Survey. [cited 2018 February 9]. Available from: https://igws.indiana.edu/MarionCounty/Hydrogeologic.cfm.

George PG, Mace RE, Petrossian R. 2011. Aquifers of Texas. Austin (Texas): Texas Water Development Board. 182 p. Report 380.

Geosoft. 2015. Technical papers—Topics in gridding. [cited 2018 January 5]. Available from: http://www.geosoft.com/media/uploads/resources/technical-papers/topicsingrid¬dingworkshop.pdf.

Geosoft. 2018. Release notes and downloads–Oasis montaj 8.1. [cited 2018 October 1]. Available from: https://www. geosoft.com/products/oasis-montaj/new/81.

Gustavson TC. 1996. Fluvial and eolian depositional systems, paleosols, and paleoclimate of the Late Cenozoic Ogallala and Blackwater Draw Formations, Southern High Plains, Texas and New Mexico. Austin (Texas): The University of Texas at Austin; Bureau of Economic Geology. 62 p. Report of Investigations No. 239.

Gutentag ED, Heimes FJ, Krothe NC, Luckey RR, Weeks JB. 1984. Geohydrology of the High Plains aquifer in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. Washington (District of Columbia): U.S. Geological Survey. 63 p. Professional Paper 1400–B. [cited 2018 December 15] Available from: https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1400b/report.pdf.

Herald FA. 1957. Occurrence of oil and gas in west Texas. Austin (Texas): University of Texas Bureau of Economic Geology. 442 p. 3 pls.

Isaaks EH, Srivastava RM. 1989. An introduction to applied geostatistics. New York (New York): Oxford University Press. 561 p.

Keller GV, Frischknecht FC. 1966. Electrical methods in geo¬physical prospecting. 1st edition. Oxford (England): Per¬gamon Press. 519 p.

Knowles T, Nordstrom P, Klemt WB. 1984. Evaluating the groundwater resources of the High Plains of Texas. Austin (Texas): Texas Department of Water Resources. 1038 p. Report 288. v. 1–3.

Larkin TJ, Bomar GW. 1983. Climatic atlas of Texas. Austin (Texas): Texas Department of Water Resources. 151 p. Limited Printing Report LP–192.

[LEUWCD] Llano Estacado Underground Water Conserva¬tion District. 2018a. Llano Estacado Underground Water Conservation District—Management plan. [cited 2018 January 5]. Available from: http://www.llanoestacadouw¬cd.org/managementplan.html.

[LEUWCD] Llano Estacado Underground Water Conserva¬tion District. 2018b. Llano Estacado Underground Water Conservation District—Maps. [cited 2018 January 5]. Available from: http://www.llanoestacadouwcd.org/maps.html.

Lucius JE, Langer WH, Ellefsen KJ. 2007. An introduction to using surface geophysics to characterize sand and gravel deposits. Reston (Virginia): U.S. Geological Survey. 33 p. Circular 1310.

McGowen JH, Granata GE, Seni SJ. 1979. Depositional framework of the lower Dockum Group (Triassic), Texas Panhandle. Austin (Texas): The University of Texas at Aus¬tin; Bureau of Economic Geology. 60 p. Report of Inves¬tigations no. 97.

McGuire VL, Lund KD, Densmore BK. 2012. Saturated thick¬ness and water in storage in the High Plains aquifer, 2009, and water-level changes and changes in water in storage in the High Plains aquifer, 1980 to 1995, 1995 to 2000, 2000 to 2005, and 2005 to 2009. Reston (Virginia): U.S. Geological Survey. 28 p. Scientific Investigations Report 2012–5177.

McGuire VL. 2017. Water-level and recoverable water in stor¬age changes, High Plains aquifer, predevelopment to 2015 and 2013–15. Reston (Virginia): U.S. Geological Survey. Scientific Investigations Report 2017–5040. 14 p. [cited 2018 December 14]. Available from: https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2017/5040/sir20175040.pdf.

Meyer JE, Wise MR, Kalaswad S. 2012. Pecos Valley aquifer, west Texas—Structure and brackish groundwater. Austin (Texas): Texas Water Development Board. 92 p.

[MSI] Mount Sopris Instruments. 2018. Downhole Probes. [cited 2018 January 5]. Available from: http://mountso¬pris.com/products/downhole-probes/.

[NASA] National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 2015. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER)—Global digital eleva¬tion model version 2. Pasadena (California): California Institute of Technology; Jet Propulsion Laboratory. [cited 2018 January 5]. Available from: http://asterweb.jpl.nasa. gov/gdem.asp.

[NOAA] National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2015. National Climatic Data Center—Monthly normal. [cited 2018 January 5]. Available from: http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/cdo-web/datatools.

Rettman PL, Leggat ER. 1966. Ground-water resources of Gaines County, Texas. Austin (Texas): Texas Water Devel¬opment Board. 183 p. Report 15.

Ryder PD. 1996. Ground water atlas of the United States: Seg¬ment 4, Oklahoma, Texas. Reston (Virginia): U.S. Geo¬logical Survey. Hydrologic Investigations Atlas 730–E. [cited 2018 January 5]. Available from: https://pubs.usgs.gov/ha/730e/report.pdf.

[SLUWCD] Sandy Land Underground Water Conservation District. 2018a. Sandy Land Underground Water Con¬servation District—Documents. [cited 2018 January 5] Available from: http://sandylandwater.com/documents.html.

[SLUWCD] Sandy Land Underground Water Conservation District. 2018b. Sandy Land Underground Water Con¬servation District—Management plan. [cited January 5]. Available from: http://sandylandwater.com/Doc%20Files/Management%20Plan%20Amended%202009.pdf.

Seni SJ. 1980. Sand-body geometry and depositional systems, Ogallala Formation, Texas. Austin (Texas): The University of Texas at Austin; Bureau of Economic Geology. Report of Investigations No. 105. 36 p.

[SPUWCD] South Plains Underground Water Conservation District. 2018a. South Plains Underground Water Con¬servation District—Management plan. [cited 2018 Jan¬uary 5]. Available from: http://spuwcd.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/2019_Mgt-Plan_Final.pdf.

[SPUWCD] South Plains Underground Water Conservation District. 2018b. South Plains Underground Water Con¬servation District—Maps. [cited 2018 January 5]. Avail¬able from: http://spuwcd.org/maps/.

Teeple AP, Thomas JV, Payne JD, Ikard SJ, Wallace DS, Hous¬ton NA, Kraske KA. 2018. Data used to assess the hydro¬geologic framework with emphasis on the Ogallala and Edwards-Trinity Aquifers, in and Near Gaines, Terry, and Yoakum Counties, Texas. 2018. U.S. Geological Survey. [cited January 5]. Available from: https://doi.org/10.5066/F7F47NFC.

[TWDB] Texas Water Development Board. 2018a. Ground¬water database reports. [cited 2018 January 5]. Available from: http://www.twdb.texas.gov/groundwater/data/gwd¬brpt.asp.

[TWDB] Texas Water Development Board. 2018b. Minor aquifers—Edwards-Trinity (High Plains) Aquifer. [cited 2018 January 5]. Available from: http://www.twdb.texas.gov/groundwater/aquifer/minors/edwards-trinity-high-plains.asp.

[TWDB] Texas Water Development Board. 2018c. Major aquifers—Ogallala Aquifer. [cited 2018 January 5]. Avail¬able from: http://www.twdb.texas.gov/groundwater/aqui¬fer/majors/ogallala.asp.

Thomas JV, Teeple AP, Payne JD, Ikard S. 2016. Changes between early development (1930–60) and recent (2005– 15) groundwater-level altitudes and dissolved-solids and nitrate concentrations in and near Gaines, Terry, and Yoa¬kum Counties, Texas. Reston (Virginia): U.S. Geological Survey. 2 sheets. Pamphlet. Scientific Investigations Map 3355. [cited 2018 January 5]. Available from: https://pubs.usgs.gov/sim/3355/sim3355_pamphlet.pdf.

[USCB] U.S. Census Bureau. 2017. State and county quick facts—Population estimates, July 1, 2017. [cited 2018 January 5]. Available from: https://www.census.gov/quick¬facts/fact/table/US/PST045216.

[EPA] U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2016. Drinking water contaminants—standards and regulations. National primary drinking water regulations. [cited 2018 January 5]. Available from: http://water.epa.gov/drink/contami¬nants/index.cfm.

[USGS] U.S. Geological Survey. 2018. GeoLog Locator. [cited 2018 June 11]. Available from: https://webapps.usgs.gov/GeoLogLocator/.

Winslow AG, Kister LR. 1956. Saline-water resources of Texas. Washington (District of Columbia): U.S. Geological Sur¬vey. 114 p. Water-Supply Paper 1365.

Zohdy AAR, Eaton GP, Mabey DR. 1974. Application of sur¬face geophysics to ground-water investigations. In: Tech¬niques of Water-Resources Investigations. Book 2. Chap¬ter D1. Reston (Virginia): U.S. Geological Survey.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2019 Jonathan Van Thomas, Andrew P. Teeple, Jason D. Payne, Scott J. Ikard